The Great Basin and Nevada:
The Great Basin is contained in nearly all of Nevada, much of Oregon and Utah, and exists in slivers in California, Idaho and Wyoming. The Great Basin encompasses 209,162 square miles and is the largest area in North America of a contiguous endorheic watershed, which means the geographic feature flows internally and has no channel, flow, or outlet to a major river or ocean. Albeit the region is made up of many basins despite what the name may suggest, most of the water evaporates on the surface of the land or drains to the aquifers beneath the basins. The area is known for a very dry climate, very much high desert like. While much of the precipitation falls in the form of snow, the area also receives intense thunderstorms.
|image from Wikipedia|
Bookended by the Wasatch and the Sierra Nevada Ranges to the east and west, the Great Basin is flanked by the Snake River Basin and Cascade Ranges to the north. The southern boundary is less discernible, however, the Colorado Plateau and the Colorado River and the Mojave Desert are the obvious features. The topography is characterized by a basin and range ecoregion and varies dramatically in elevation from as low as -282ft in Badwater Basin to the highest contiguous point of 14,505ft at Mt. Whitney. The area is also characterized by the hot and dry Sonoran and Mojave Deserts of the south and the Badlands of eastern Oregon and high desert of the northern Great Basin. Within these desert climates flora changes from Joshua Trees and creosote shrubs to the sagebrush basins of the northern portion. The flora also changes as the elevation ascends from pinyon and juniper in the desert climates to limber and bristlecone in the subalpine environs. Temperatures vary greatly from the highs to the lows and from the higher points to the lower points.
|The Great Basin Trail of Nevada|
The Public Lands of Nevada:
Nevada became a state in 1864. Part of the state's constitution said that an land unclaimed would be public lands that would then be managed federally. Today, Nevada contains 48 million acres of public land that is managed by the Bureau of Land Management, roughly 63% of the state of Nevada. Over the years, the vast public lands of Nevada have been used mainly for cattle and sheep grazing and mining. In 1971, wild horses were introduced to Nevada and managed under the care of the BLM. Today, Nevada has more wild horses than the rest of the western states combined. Also, the Forest Service manages almost 6 million acres of public land, most of which is in large mountain ranges such as the Toiyabe and Ruby Ranges. These public lands are also used for hunting, recreational use such as biking, hiking, off-roading, camping, fishing, and rock hounding among other uses. Culturally the public lands are rich. Petroglyphs and pictographs dot boulders and paint hidden canyon walls, Burning Man promotes peace and creativity in the Black Rock Desert, aspens hold etchings from sheepherders from Peru and the Basque country that signify a past presence and trail side information; remnants of old homesteads that creak amid ancient cottonwoods, mining roads erode and mining relics rust in the dry sun, and the Pony Express's footprint still whistles in the wind.
The Great Basin Trail spends most of the route on BLM land, wends its way through occasional Forest Service land, dips in and out of state land, and traverses across the Great Basin National Park and Basin and Range National Monument which are managed by the National Park Service. The GBT passes through many wilderness areas and study areas managed by the BLM and USFS, while in its entirety the Great Basin Train exhibits a wilderness characteristic that is hard to compare. While none of the GBT passes through private property (although at times a fence line is straddled), it is not uncommon to encounter ranch hands or shepherds out on public lands. There is so much open and public land out here in Nevada folks can share separate experiences yet feel the common bond of wildness and the spirit of freedom.
I have seen various counts of Nevada's mountain ranges ranging as wide as from 150 to 300+ mountain ranges with distinct biomes. I side with the latter. Just take a gander at a topographic map of Nevada and see for yourself.
The Great Basin Trail:
The Great Basin Trail is a loop route solely contained within the state of Nevada and the geographic feature of the Great Basin. The GPS track I sketched tallies roughly 1025 miles, while I estimate the actual walking to be between 1100-1200 miles. The route is in a loop and can be hiked in either direction. The loop gives one the flexibility to not only to have an optimal hiking season as well as when to time that season, but hiking a loop can help one be more self-sufficient in regards to resupply and caching strategies. The GBT is more or less bisected by US Highway 6 with the southern half drier and warmer and the northern half colder, higher in elevation, and a tad wetter. You can walk through a couple towns, such as Eureka and Wells. I achieved a full circuit of the Great Basin Trail starting at Lake Valley Summit off of Highway 93 just west of Great Basin National Park in 44 days and in a clockwise direction. I vetted most of the trail on the ground after spending the previous Winter researching satellite images, maps, and other websites. In all honesty, I got very lucky in what transpired out on the Great Basin Trail. When I initially started I thought to be on a personal route-driven hike only to find enough sufficient water and trail to consider this a route hikeable for others looking for other challenging long distance trails routes.
Generally, the GBT crosses a basin in either east-west direction and can traverse a mountain range east-west or north-south directions. Obviously, the crossings of mountain ranges pose the greatest difficulty on the GBT, with some ranges being minor high desert biomes and some others, such as the Ruby's, being a mix of high alpine and desert shrub environments. Rough estimates, and it seems fair to say, about 35% of the trail is cross country, 40% is either faint two track or jeep track or dirt road, and 25% is roughly trail. Of these estimated percentages I had occasional full days of nothing but cross country, encountered myriad systems of horse trails stamped out in BLM managed mountain and basin regions, found cattle trail across some isolated drainages that led to corrals, sauntered along old mining track that probably hadn't been driven on in years, and tried to avoid the most heavily used dirt roads in stretches. Overall the cross country across the basins is very straightforward, the occasional bushwhacking through remote canyons a bear of a task, while the ridge line scamperings were either lined with horse trail or negotiably attained crest hiking.
I found water to be plentiful, especially north of Highway 6. The longest waterless carry is about 50 or so miles, but luckily enough that stretch is as you have left a town when you should be fully hydrated. Water sources can be a small flow to a trickle to a raging creek. Springs are abundant in the ranges while in the basins corrals with troughs and tanks are intersected to make one confident in water carriage. Wild horses and cattle are present, more the former than the latter, so, some of the tanks and corrals are maintained for these animal purposes. It is not uncommon to stumble upon large bands of horses, herds of elk, and bands of bighorn sheep. Antelope scurry across the basins, vultures and ravens and golden eagles soar twirling in the thermals, and coyotes stealthily trot across the barren basins and howl under the incredibly dark night sky.
Over the next couple posts an in depth description of the Great Basin Trail will contain my inspiration for the route, a resource guide, and details on how to attain the map set and waypoints.
Impressive Facts of the Great Basin Trail:
26 Mountain Ranges: Snake, Fortification, Wilson Creek, Chief, Delamar, South Pahroc, Hiko, Mt. Irish, Worthington, Quinn Canyon, Pancake, Hot Creek, McKinney, Toiyabe, Toquima, Monitor, Antelope, Fish Creek, Diamond, Southern Ruby, Ruby, East Humboldt, Pequop, Dolly Varden, Schell Creek, Moriah
19 Basins/Valleys: Snake, Lake, Delamar, Pahroc, Pahranagat, Garden, Railroad, Hot Creek, East and West Stone Cabin, Ralston, Big Smoky, Monitor, Little Fish Lake, Huntington, Clover, Independence, Goshute, Spring
19 Wilderness: Highland Ridge, Fortification, Parsnip Peak, South Pahroc, Worthington, Quinn Canyon, Palisade Mesa, Arc Dome, Alta Toquima, Table Mountain, Antelope, Ruby, East Humboldt, South Pequop, Becky Peak, High Schells, Mt. Moriah
****resource pulled from Wikipedia, BLM web pages, and Friends of Nevada Wilderness pages****
Great Basin Trail Media:
- Article in the Reno Gazette Journal by Jason Bean
- Video of wild horses in the Diamond Range, posted by RGJ and Jason Bean
- Article in the Gossamer Gear blog, titled Developing the Great Basin Trail: A Hiker Immersed into the Soul of the Land
- The Trail Show Podcast episode #98